Accounting Policies, Critical Accounting Estimates
Bord na Móna plc (the ‘Company’) is a company domiciled in Ireland. The consolidated financial statements of the Company as at and for the year ended 27 March 2013 comprise the Company and its subsidiaries (together referred to as the ‘Group’ and individually as ‘Group entities’) and the Group’s interest in joint ventures.
The accounting policies set out below have been consistently applied to all years presented in these consolidated financial statements and have been consistently applied by all Group entities. There were no new standards adopted during the year.
Basis of preparation and statement of compliance
The consolidated and Company financial statements have been prepared in accordance with financial reporting standards of the Financial Reporting Council as promulgated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Ireland (generally accepted accounting principles in Ireland) and applicable Company Law.
The Company has taken advantage of the exemption available to it under Section 148(8) of the Companies Act, 1963 which permits a company that publishes its Company and Group financial statements together not to present to its members its own profit and loss account and related notes that form part of the approved Company financial statements.
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following material items in the balance sheet:
- investment property is measured at fair value; and
- the defined benefit plan liability is recognised as plan assets less the present value of the defined benefit plan obligations.
Certain comparative figures have been reclassified in order to present information on a basis consistent with the current year.
Functional and presentation currency
The financial statements are prepared in Euro, which is the functional currency of the Company. All financial information presented in Euro has been rounded to the nearest thousand, except when otherwise indicated.
Basis of consolidation
Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases.
Intra-group balances and transactions, and any unrealised income and expenses arising from intra-group transactions, are eliminated on the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
Business combinations are accounted for using the purchase method as at the acquisition date, i.e. when control is transferred to the Group. Control is the ability of an undertaking to direct the financial and operating policies of another undertaking with a view to gaining economic benefits from its activities.
Upon the acquisition of a business, the identifiable assets and liabilities acquired are included in the consolidated financial statements of the acquirer at their fair values at the date of acquisition. The difference between these and the cost of acquisition is recognised as goodwill or negative goodwill. The cost of acquisition is the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid and the fair value of other purchase consideration given by the acquirer, together with the associated transaction expenses. Goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to the income generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
Joint ventures are undertakings over which the Group exercises control jointly with one or more parties. Joint ventures are accounted for using the gross equity method in the consolidated financial statements. Under the gross equity method the investment in a joint venture is recognised initially at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the Group’s share of the net assets of the joint venture. The cost of the investment includes transaction costs. Any goodwill arising on the acquisition of joint ventures is included in the carrying amount of the investments.
The amounts included in the consolidated financial statements in respect of the post-acquisition profits/losses of joint ventures are taken from their latest audited financial statements made up to the balance sheet date.
Investments in joint ventures are shown in the Company balance sheet as a financial asset and are measured at cost less provisions for impairment in value.
Sale of goods and services
Turnover from the sale of goods and services in the course of ordinary activities is measured at the fair value of consideration received or receivable, excluding value added tax and net of returns, trade discounts and including other levies on goods and services to external customers. Turnover from services is recognised when those services are delivered.
Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the customer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs can be measured reliably, there is no continuing managerial involvement with the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. If it is probable that discounts will be granted and the amount can be measured reliably, then the discount is recognised as a reduction of revenue as the sales are recognised.
The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the sales agreement.
The Group supplies electricity to ESB Customer Supply under a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) which expires in December 2015. Turnover is recognised for (i) capacity availability and (ii) energy supplied, on the basis of contractual performance in accordance with the terms of the PPA. Related pass through costs are recognised in accordance with the terms of the PPA.
Turnover on long-term contracts is recognised using the percentage-of-completion method. The amount of turnover and profit recognised in each accounting period reflects the work performed in that period based on costs incurred.
Operating lease rental income is recognised on a straight-line basis, with any lease incentives granted recognised as an integral part of the total rental income over the term to the next market rent review.
Deferred revenue and accrued revenue
On receipt of payment from customers in advance of the performance of the Group’s contractual obligations to its customers, the Group recognises deferred revenue on the balance sheet, representing the Group’s unperformed obligations under the contract terms. When the Group performs its obligations and thereby obtains the right to consideration, the related revenue is recognised in the profit and loss account. The costs associated with the delivery of the services are charged to cost of sales as incurred.
Revenue earned on goods/services delivery but unbilled is recognised in accordance with contractual terms as accrued revenue on the balance sheet.
With respect to exceptional items, the Group has applied a profit and loss account format which seeks to highlight significant items within Group results for the year. The Group exercises judgement in assessing the particular items, which by virtue of their scale and nature, should be disclosed in the profit and loss account and related notes as exceptional items. The Group believes that such a presentation provides a more helpful analysis as it highlights material items of a non-recurring nature.
Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into Euro at the rate of exchange ruling at the transaction date or, if hedged, at the rate of exchange under the related forward currency contract. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rates ruling at the balance sheet date or, if hedged forward, at the rate of exchange under the related forward currency contract. The resulting exchange differences are included in the profit and loss account.
The financial statements of foreign subsidiaries are translated into Euro using the closing rate method. Profits and losses arising on the re-translation of foreign subsidiaries are taken to reserves and recognised in the statement of total recognised gains and losses. Exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings, to the extent that they are used to finance or provide a hedge against Group equity investment in foreign subsidiaries, are also taken to reserves and recognised in the statement of total recognised gains and losses.
Derivative financial instruments
The Group uses derivative financial instruments including a number of cross currency interest rate swaps and forward foreign exchange contracts. In order to hedge the exchange rate exposures and fix the floating interest rates on the Group’s two private placement facilities, the Group entered into a number of swap arrangements which match the maturity profile of the unsecured loan notes. The Group’s forward foreign exchange contracts are used to hedge expected foreign transaction cash flows.
These derivatives are not recognised on the balance sheet. The fair value of the financial instruments is disclosed at each balance sheet date.
In accordance with the provisions of the European CO2 emissions trading scheme, emissions allowances covering a percentage of the expected emissions during the year are granted to Bord na Móna at the beginning of each year by the relevant Government Authority.
As emissions arise, a charge is recorded in the profit and loss account to reflect the amount required to settle the liability to the Government Authority. This provision will include the current market value of any additional allowances required to settle the obligation. These allowances, together with any additional allowances purchased during the year, are returned to the relevant Authority within four months of the end of that calendar year, in order to cover the liability for actual emissions of CO2 during that year. Certain of the emissions costs are recoverable from ESB Customer Supply under the PPA.
The purchase of carbon credits are recorded as Intangibles assets at cost.
Tangible fixed assets
Recognition and measurement
Freehold land, other than peatland, is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Peatland and all other tangible fixed assets are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.
Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The cost of self-constructed assets includes:
- the cost of materials and labour;
- any other costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to a working condition for their intended use;
- when the Group has an obligation to remove the asset or restore the site, an estimate of the costs associated with this, and
- capitalised borrowing costs.
When parts of an item of tangible fixed asset have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items
(major components) and depreciated separately.
Any gain or loss on disposal of a tangible fixed asset (calculated as the difference between the net proceeds from disposal and the carrying amount of the item) is recognised in profit or loss.
The Group has a policy of capitalising finance costs. Finance costs that are directly attributable to the construction of tangible fixed assets are capitalised as part of the cost of those assets. Where funds are borrowed specifically for the purpose of financing the construction of a tangible fixed asset, the amount of finance costs capitalised is limited to the actual costs incurred on the borrowings during the period in respect of expenditure on the tangible fixed asset. The capitalisation of finance costs ceases when the asset is commissioned or where active development has been interrupted for an extended period of time.
Depletion and depreciation
Tangible fixed assets are depreciated from the date that they are available for use or, in respect of assets in the course of construction, from the date that the asset is completed and ready for use.
Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost of tangible fixed assets less their estimated residual values using the straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Depreciation is generally recognised in profit or loss.
A depletion charge is recorded in respect of peatland, drainage and railways. Other tangible fixed assets are depreciated on a straight line basis at the rates indicated:
Plant & Machinery
5% to 12.5%
5% to 10%
20% to 33.3%
The Group’s power plant at Edenderry is depreciated on a electrical output basis in order to relate the depreciation to the estimated production capability of the plant. The Group supplies electricity to ESB Customer Supply under the PPA on a priority despatch basis. This PPA expires in 2015 and the plant’s contractual entitlement to priority despatch ceases at that date. The electrical output method of depreciation seeks to relate the depreciation charge to the estimated production capability of the plant.
The Group’s peaking plants at Edenderry is depreciated on a straight line basis with the charge calculated to write the cost of the asset down to its estimated residual value. The use of the straight line basis of depreciation reflects the anticipated consumption of the economic benefit of the plant on a consistent basis over the useful life of the plant based on its availability to the grid.
The cost of the landfill asset is depreciated over the licensed life of twenty years the infrastructural assets associated with it and the landfill cells are depreciated on the basis of the usage of void space.
No depreciation is charged on assets in the course of construction.
Interests in subsidiary undertakings and joint ventures are measured at cost less provisions for impairment in value on the Company balance sheet.
In the consolidated balance sheet, the Group’s interest in joint ventures is accounted for using the gross equity method.
The Group carries out an impairment test if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the financial asset may not be recoverable.
The recoverable amount is determined by comparing the carrying value of the financial asset against the higher of its net realisable value and its value in use. The value in use is determined by discounting estimated future cash flows expected to be derived from the financial asset, to net present value. To the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, the financial asset is impaired and is written down.
Investment property is an interest in land and/or buildings that is held for investment potential. Investment properties are included in the balance sheet at their open market value and are not depreciated. Movements in value are recorded as a movement in the revaluation reserve through the statement of total recognised gains and losses, unless a valuation indicates a permanent diminution. Revaluations below original cost are regarded as permanent and are charged to the profit and loss account in the period.
Goodwill and intangible assets
Purchased goodwill is capitalised on the balance sheet and amortised over its estimated useful economic life (between three and twenty years).
Impairment of assets and goodwill
The carrying amounts of the Group’s tangible fixed assets and goodwill are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of tangible fixed assets, Intangible assets or goodwill may not be recoverable, the Group carries out an impairment test.
For impairment testing assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generate income that is largely independent of the Group’s other income streams. The recoverable amount in respect of income generating units (‘IGUs’) is the higher of its net realisable value and the value in use. The value in use is determined by discounting to present value the estimated future cash flows expected to be derived from the income generating unit. The discount rate used is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or the IGU.
To the extent that the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, the asset is impaired and is written down. Any impairment loss arising is recognised in the profit and loss account.
Classification of financial instruments issued by the Group
Financial instruments issued by the Group are treated as equity (i.e. forming part of shareholders’ funds) only to the extent that they meet the following two conditions:
- they include no contractual obligations upon the Company (or Group as the case may be) to deliver cash or other financial assets or to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another party under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the Company (or Group); and
- where the instrument will or may be settled in the Company’s own equity instruments, it is either a non-derivative that includes no obligation to deliver a variable number of the Company’s own equity instruments or is a derivative that will be settled by the Company’s exchanging a fixed amount of cash or other financial assets for a fixed number of its own equity instruments.
To the extent that this definition is not met, the proceeds of issue are classified as a financial liability.
Research and development costs
Expenditure on pure or applied research is expensed in the profit and loss account as incurred.
Development costs are expensed in the profit and loss account unless the criteria for capitalisation as an intangible asset are satisfied, in which case they are capitalised from that date. The criteria for capitalisation include: (i) sufficient evidence that an asset has been created (ii) future inflow of benefit will occur and (iii) it can be measured with sufficient reliability.
Capital grants received and receivable under EU-assisted schemes are recognised when received or when their receipt can be foreseen with virtual certainty. Grants received in respect of tangible fixed assets are treated as a deferred credit and amortised to the profit and loss account annually over the economic useful life of the related tangible fixed assets.
Revenue grants that compensate the Group for expenses incurred are recognised in profit or loss on a systematic basis in the periods in which the expenses are recognised.
Stocks, work in progress and long term contracts
Stocks and work in progress are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Coal stocks are valued at weighted average actual cost. Briquette stocks are valued on the lower of actual costs or the standard normalised cost. Growing media stocks are valued at weighted average actual costs.
Cost of milled peat includes all direct expenditure incurred in bringing products to their existing location and condition under normal operating conditions. The cost of milled peat stock harvested is determined at each peatland location as the cost of the annual harvest allocated over the normal levels of harvest production calculated based on standard tonnage. The unit cost is reduced to actual cost where actual cost per tonne is lower than standard cost per tonne. The costs of milled peat stocks include a depletion charge, direct labour, other costs and related production overheads. Variations from standard tonnage (i.e. up tonnages where the actual output tonnages are greater due to improved moisture content) are recognised on measurement of the peat when the stock pile is fully outloaded. The additional bonuses of work groups which only arise when up-tonnage is recognised are provided for when the related up-tonnages are identified and recognised as part of this measurement process.
Net realisable value is based on estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated cost of completion, costs necessary to make the sale and any penalty payments.
Profit on long-term contracts is recognised once the outcome can be assessed with reasonable certainty. Losses on long-term contracts are provided as soon as they are foreseen. Long-term work in progress is stated net of payments received on account.
Provision is made for damaged, deteriorated, obsolete and slow moving items where appropriate.
Trade debtors are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently at amortised cost less any impairment losses. Trade debtors are considered for impairment on an on-going basis. Provisions for impairment of trade debtor balances are recorded against identified doubtful debtors.
Cash and cash equivalents comprise of cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits.
Interest bearing loans and borrowings are initially recognised at fair value less any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, these financial liabilities are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Assets held by the Group under leases which transfer to the Group substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. On initial recognition, assets held under finance leases are included in tangible fixed assets at the lower of fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or their useful economic life and otherwise accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset.
Obligations relating to finance leases, net of finance charges in respect of future periods, are recognised as creditors and presented as due within or after one year, as appropriate. Finance charges are allocated to accounting periods over the lease term to reflect a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the obligations.
Rentals under operating leases are charged to the profit and loss account on a straight-line basis, with any lease incentives granted recognised as an integral part of the total rental expense over the term to the next rent review.
A provision is defined as a liability of uncertain timing or amount. Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, a reliable estimate of that obligation can be made and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.
Where the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised in the profit and loss account as finance cost.
The amount of a provision is reviewed each year and amended as appropriate. Any changes to the amount of the provision arising from changes in either the amount or timing of cash flows, the discount rate and the rate of inflation are capitalised into the relevant assets and depreciated prospectively.
Environmental reinstatement provision
Provision is made for environmental reinstatement costs relating to the after-use of cutaway peatland and decommissioning costs at the end of the useful lives of the assets. The provision is recorded when the circumstances giving rise to the obligation to reinstate the assets occur. The amount of the provision represents the present value of the expected future costs. A depletion charge is recorded in the profit and loss account in order to charge the cost of capitalised reinstatement costs to the profit and loss account reflecting extraction.
Landfill restoration provision
A provision is recorded for the present value of the Group’s unavoidable costs in relation to the aftercare and the restoration cost of the landfill facility. This value is capitalised as a tangible fixed asset. Provision is made for the present value of post closure costs based on the quantity of waste deposited in the year. Similar costs incurred during the operating life of the sites are also provided for and expensed directly to the profit and loss account.
Provision for generating assets and manufacturing plants closure
The provision for closure of generating stations represents the present value of the current estimate of the costs of closure of the stations at the end of their useful lives.
The present value of the estimated costs of closing stations are recognised as a provision and capitalised in the tangible fixed asset where they are depreciated in the same way as the generating asset itself.
Self insurance provisions
Self insurance provisions relate to the estimated liability in respect of costs to be incurred under the Group’s self insurance programmes for events occurring on or prior to the year end. The provision is estimated based on a case by case assessment by the independent loss adjustors of the likely outturn on each case. In addition there is an estimated liability for claims incurred but not yet reports at the balance sheet date.
Provisions for legal claims are included in the financial statements, for legal and other matters on the basis of the amounts that the Group consider will become payable, after evaluating the recommendations of legal advisors, their in-house legal teams, and other experts.
The Group issues warranties for certain goods and services. The warranty costs are provided for based on the duration of the warranty period.
Redundancy costs are provided for by the Group, once a detailed formal plan has been prepared and approved and the Group is irrevocably committed to implementing the plan.
Pensions and post retirement benefits
The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution pension arrangements.
Defined contribution schemes
A defined contribution scheme is a post-employment benefit scheme under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss in the periods during which the related services are received.
Defined benefit schemes: Group
A defined benefit scheme is a post-employment benefit scheme other than a defined contribution plan. Defined benefit pension scheme assets are measured at fair value. Defined benefit pension scheme liabilities are measured on an actuarial basis using the projected unit credit method and discounted at the current rate of return on a high quality corporate bond of equivalent term and currency to the liability.
The excess of scheme liabilities over scheme assets is presented on the balance sheet as a liability net of related deferred tax. Pension scheme surpluses, to the extent that they are considered recoverable are presented on the balance sheet as an asset net of related deferred tax. The defined benefit pension charge to operating profit comprises the current service cost and past service costs. The difference between the expected return on scheme assets over the interest cost on the scheme liabilities is presented in the profit and loss account as other finance income/expense.
Actuarial gains and losses arising from changes in actuarial assumptions and from experience surpluses and deficits are recognised in the statement of total recognised gains and losses for the year in which they occur.
Where the scheme rules require a surplus arising in the scheme to be shared between the employer and the members, the amount attributable to the members is treated as an increase in the scheme liabilities. The movement in the share attributable to members is recognised in the statement of total recognised gains and losses.
Defined benefit schemes: Company
The Company is a member of the Group defined benefit scheme but is unable to identify its share of the underlying assets and liabilities of the scheme on a consistent and reasonable basis. Therefore, the Company accounts for the scheme as if it were a defined contribution scheme. As a result, the amount charged to the Company’s profit and loss account represents the contributions payable to the scheme in respect of the accounting period.
Taxation including deferred tax
The charge for taxation is based on the profit for the year and takes into account taxation deferred because of timing differences between the treatment of certain items for taxation and accounting purposes.
Current tax represents the amount expected to be paid in respect of taxable profit for the year and is calculated using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax is recognised in respect of all timing differences that have originated but not reversed at the balance sheet date where transactions or events that result in an obligation to pay more tax in the future or a right to pay less tax in the future have occurred at the balance sheet date.
Timing differences are temporary differences between profit as computed for taxation purposes and profit as stated in the financial statements which arise because certain items of income and expenditure in the financial statements are dealt with in different periods for taxation purposes.
Deferred tax assets are regarded as recoverable and recognised in the financial statements when, on the basis of available evidence, it is more likely than not that there will be suitable taxable profits from which the future reversal of the timing differences can be deducted. The recoverability of tax losses is assessed by reference to forecasts which have been prepared and approved by the Board.
Deferred tax is measured, on an undiscounted basis, at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the periods in which the timing differences are expected to reverse based on tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.
Share based payment
Equity settled share based payment to employees are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. The fair value is expensed on a straight line basis over the vesting period. In accordance with FRS 20 ‘Share Based Payments’, the Group recognise an expense in the profit and loss and a corresponding increase in equity in respect of the fair value of the shares issued to employees. The fair value of the shares issued is determined on a minority non-controlling basis. Factors taken into consideration in determining the fair value include the market, discounted cash flow, net assets value and the characteristics of the shares being acquired.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity.
Dividends are recognised in the financial statements when they have been appropriately approved or authorised by the shareholder and are no longer at the discretion of the Company.
Critical accounting estimates and judgements
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make certain judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected.
Critical judgements that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements include the following areas:
(a) Pension scheme assets and liabilities
The actuarial valuation of pensions is based on assumptions regarding inflation, discount rates, the expected return on plan assets, salary increases, increases in pension payments and mortality rates. The assumptions adopted by the Group at 27 March 2013 are outlined in Note 25 to the financial statements and have been determined with assistance from the Group’s actuarial advisors.
The Turf Development Acts 1946 to 1998 and the rules governing the Bord na Móna GESS and RWESS pension schemes lay down in considerable detail the benefits that are to be provided to members. They also stipulate the shared contributions to be paid by both Bord na Móna and the contributing members. This does not conform to the ‘balance of cost’ defined benefit approach. For the purposes of reporting in accordance with Financial Reporting Standard 17 at 27 March 2013, 100% of the pension scheme deficit on the RWESS and GESS schemes has been recognised in the financial statements. The RWESS pension scheme has a surplus at 28 March 2012 and the Group has accounted for its share of the pension scheme surplus on a 50:50 basis between members and the Group.
(b) Impairment of assets and goodwill
Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment and goodwill are tested for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying values may not be recoverable. The recoverable amount of income generating units is determined based on the determination of a value in use for the income generating unit. This determination is based on forecasted future cashflows.
The Group’s resource recovery business is continuing to operate in challenging and highly competitive economic conditions and in a changing regulatory environment. In the event that the Group does not deliver anticipated volume and price increases or achieve anticipated cost reductions, or in the event that current weak economic conditions prevail in the domestic market, then the value in use assessment of the income generating unit may be adversely impacted. The determination of the value in use also requires application of an appropriate weighted average cost of capital and assessment of a long-term growth rate for the sector. The potential impact on the recoverable amount of changes in these key assumptions are set-out in Note 7 to the financial statements.
(c) Carrying value of power plants
The Group’s power plant at Edenderry operates a fifteen year PPA with the ESB Customer Supply to provide electricity on a priority despatch basis. This PPA expires in December 2015. The plants contractual entitlement to priority despatch will cease as at that date. The Group anticipate that the plant will continue to operate in the period post 2015 in the single electricity market (‘SEM’) co-fired by biomass and peat. The related goodwill is being amortised over the period to 2025 reflecting a useful economic life of 20 years. In considering the carrying value of the plant at Edenderry and the goodwill arising on acquisition of the business, a number of key assumptions are made in respect of the operation of the plant in the period post 2015. These assumptions are considered on an annual basis on assessment of the appropriateness of the carrying value of the plant and the related goodwill.
(d) Environmental obligations
The Group has certain environmental obligations arising as a result of its land, and landfill operations. Determination of the provisions for the related environmental rehabilitation obligations in the period to and post extraction and operation reflects certain key assumptions in respect of the associated costs. These assumptions are reviewed on an on-going basis reflecting actual experience.
The financial year ends on the last Wednesday in March. These financial statements cover the 52-week period 29 March 2012 to 27 March 2013 (prior year: 52-week period 30 March 2011 to 28 March 2012).